The Pharaohs themselves are now but phantasms, thin vaporous spirits who dwell in Amenti, the Hidden Land, but the Pyramids are with us still; solid, bulky memorials which have become an enduring part of the rocky stone plateau upon which they were built. Ancient Egypt continues to hold the attention and to grip the interest of the modern world, chiefly because it has left us these stupendous testimonies to its existence, testimonies which are more tangible and more visible than any which have been left by other dead empires of the East.
Alongside the famous Sphinx lies Egypt’s other famous monument – the Great Pyramid of Giza – the most distinct and massive structure of Egypt’s hazy landscape. The Great Pyramid of Giza, unrivalled by the achievements of later builders and architects, stands today a monumental testimony to a past and great civilisation.
The mathematical and astronomical precision of the Great Pyramid – “discovered” recently by the modern world – has fascinated and intrigued scholars and travellers alike. People ask: “How can this pyramid be explained in the light of modern thought? Modern thought tells us that history is the development of cave-man to modern-man. How, then, could primitive men build this fabulous super-structure, unmatched in its precision and vastness; this impervious testimony to their existence?” Modern “thought” and “history” may tell it very simply, but in essence, the very opposite is probably true; civilisation is not a new phenomena, it has existed at various times throughout mankind’s long past.
The Great Pyramid’s Position and Age
The Great Pyramid of Giza is situated about ten miles to the south-west of Cairo, the capital of Egypt. Known as the Pyramid of Cheops (Khufu), it stands on the northern edge of the Giza Plateau, 198 feet above sea level, in the eastern extremity of the Libyan section of the Great Sahara Desert. The Great Pyramid is the most northerly of a group of nine pyramids compromising the “Giza Complex”. To the south-east of the Great Pyramid lies the Sphinx, carved out of the rock, with its gaze directed towards the rising sun.
While archeologists generally contend that the Great Pyramid was built during the reign of Pharaoh Cheops (Khufu) of the IVth dynasty (erection period circa 2623 B.C.), this is questioned by various written accounts and recent discoveries.
The Egyptian Copts, who claim to be the descendants of ancient Egyptian stock, hold a tradition that declares the Great Pyramid was there for many centuries before Khufu, thereby inferring that Khufu may have repaired it and then took credit for its construction.
According to a history of ancient Egypt written by Masoudi, a medieval Coptic historian, the two greatest pyramids (Cheops and Chephren) were built by Surid, one of the kings of Egypt. The king is reported to have had a prophetic dream where “the sky came down and the stars fell upon the earth.”
The king’s interpreter of dreams consequently predicted a great flood and fire that would burn up the world. The king then ordered the construction of the two pyramids so that all the secret sciences together with knowledge of the stars as well as all they knew of geometry and mathematics could be stored within. All their collected knowledge would thus survive and be available for future generations.
Other accounts of who built the Great Pyramid have also been brought down to us by Church historians.
Archbishop Ussher, the noted Church historian, in his Biblical chronology, refers to the migration of the Shepherd Kings from Arabia into Egypt. Ussher believed that some “Shepherd-Prince coming from Arabia or Palestine was enabled to exert such an amount of mental control over King Cheops as to induce the King to shut up the idolatrous temples and compel his subjects to labor in the erection of the Great Pyramid.”
The famous Greek historian, Herodotus, who conversed with Egyptian priests regarding the builders of the Great Pyramid, was also told the builders were strangers to Egypt.
Such theories telling of strangers and foreigners that came to build the Great Pyramid were taken up by several Biblical scholars. One theory had it that the prophet Enoch and Job built the Great Pyramid long before the flood of Noah, which would mean that it was constructed well before the modern date of 2623 B.C., probably during Enoch’s believed life-span circa 4300 B.C. to 4000 B.C.
Other Bible scholars, while accepting the modern date of construction, contend that it was built by either Shem (or his immediate descendants). They proclaim that the Great Pyramid is the “Bible in Stone,” embodying a prophetic chronology, listing all events of history, from the beginning to the end. They saw scriptural basis for this in the Prophet Isaiah’s statement that “In that day shall there be a alter to Yahweh in the midst of the land of Egypt, and a pillar at the border thereof to Yahweh.” (Isaiah 19:19)
Not a Tomb
In the face of available evidence, it does appear to be the case that the Great Pyramid is a unique structure in the context of that period in Egypt. It is plausible that it may have been built by outsiders or strangers to the land of Egypt. But why and what for? One thing is certain, it was not built to be a tomb as all later pyramids were.
Three clear reasons why the Great Pyramid was not built to be a tomb are:
1) Nothing whatsoever was found in the Great Pyramid when it was opened for the first time in 820 A.D. – not even the smallest resemblance of anything pertaining to the dead.
2) The departed need no air for breathing or any other purpose. The Great Pyramid, however, has ventilating tubes in both the Queen’s and King’s Chambers.
3) Most convincing of all, is the tightly fitting granite plug, fifteen feet long, at the entrance of the Ascending passage. All engineers agree that it was placed in its present position when construction had reached that level – not after. Thus, with the Ascending passage sealed when built, no mummy or coffin could have been taken into the upper chambers.
A review of the extraordinary discoveries made concerning the Great Pyramid of Giza is appropriate in the light of this modern age of ‘enlightenment’; our so-called ‘great achievements’ of contemporary times fall into the background when one appreciates the marvellous design and spiritual aurora of the Great Pyramid. The Great Pyramid is an eternal structure and storehouse of valuable knowledge and wisdom. The grand purpose behind the creation of the Great Pyramid is in stark contrast to the current period of gross selfishness and rampant materialism.
The Great Pyramid’s position is central to all the land area of the earth. The men who placed this ancient monument must have had the worldwide knowledge of a skilled surveyor, for lines drawn through the pyramid to the four cardinal points of the compass divide equally the earth’s terrain. It is therefore the logical and geographical zero of longitude, rather than Greenwich, England. Since the Earth has enough land area to provide three billion possible building sites for the Pyramid, the odds of it having been built where it is are 1 in 3 billion.
Today, seen at a distance, the Great Pyramid looks like a great pile of rock. Nearer at hand, it is seen that the stones, composing the structure, are roughly cut and laid in even courses, one upon another. These courses, or layers, form a series of gigantic steps, sloping back from the base on all four sides, to a level platform on top. Because it is the oldest building of its kind in the world and because of its immense size, the ancients conferred upon it the predominant distinction of being the first of the Seven Wonders of the World.
Modern scientific investigations have shown, with the exception of the comparatively small space occupied by the passages and chambers, the Great Pyramid is a solid mass of stone blocks having a square base and four tapering sides that rise 454 and a half feet to a small platform on top. Its original designed height is 484 feet, equal to a modern 48 story skyscraper. The length of each side of the Pyramid’s base is 755? feet and the entire structure covers slightly over 13 acres. In sheer bulk, the Great Pyramid is the largest man-made building in the world.
The yellow limestone (nummulitic) blocks making up the bulk of the Pyramid average two and a half tons each and are estimated to number about 2,300,000. This equals nearly 90,000,000 cubic feet of masonry and enough to build 30 Empire State buildings.
In its original state, each of the four sides of the Great Pyramid had an area of five and a half acres, thus totalling 22 acres of highly polished limestone blocks. In the brilliant sunshine of Egypt, the sides acted as gigantic mirrors, reflecting the sun’s rays and could be seen for many miles around. Seen from the moon, the Great Pyramid would have been seen as a bright star on earth. Appropriately, the ancient Egyptians called the Great Pyramid “Ikhet,” meaning the “Glorious Light.”
Amazingly, the outside surface stones were cut within 0.01 (1/100th) inch of perfectly straight and at nearly perfect right angles for all six sides. They were placed together with an intentional gap between them of 0.02 inch, a feat difficult to duplicate with modern technology. The 0.02-inch gap allowed space for glue to seal and hold the stones together. A white cement that connected the casing stones and made them watertight is still intact and stronger than the blocks that it joins.
By means of its reflections and shadows, the Great Pyramid became the great sundial of Egypt, not only for the days and hours, but for the seasons of the year. Exactly as a modern chronometer gives the hours, say, of midnight, 6 a.m., noon, and 6 p.m., so the reflections from the Pyramid gave accurately the days upon which the Winter Solstice, the Spring Equinox, the Summer Solstice and the Autumnal Equinox occurred. This precisely defined the Solar Astronomical Year.
The orientation of the Great Pyramid in relationship to true north is such as to cause it to be declared the “most accurately oriented edifice on earth.” That is to say, its four sides are directed to the four cardinal points of the compass with less than 3 minutes of one degree off true north. By comparison, the Paris Observatory is 6 minutes of one degree off true north. It is possible that originally the Great Pyramid was absolutely perfectly orientated and the slight error measured today is the result of centuries of contraction or expansion of the earth’s crust or from earthquakes, which seismography records as not being infrequent in the territory contiguous to the Great Pyramid.
Such nearly perfect orientation is exceedingly hard to secure, even with modern astronomical equipment, and seemingly impossible without it. If the knowledge of the magnetic needle was known, it would have been of little value. It points to the magnetic north, not to the true north. The magnetic north is also constantly moving. The celestial pole (true north) is a point, usually defined by a star, through which the polar axis of the earth would pass were it projected to the star sphere.
From its physical appearance, the Great Pyramid stands at the head of the world in vastness of dimensions. For over forty centuries it has been enshrouded in the deepest mystery but now it is beginning to yield up its secrets. Modern research is finding it to have been constructed in perfection of workmanship and in the practical mastery of problems that would tax the ingenuity of modern engineers. It was built for permanence and for surviving all the commotions of nature and all the vandalism of men.
The earliest record of the Great Pyramid is found in the writings of the Greek historian, Herodotus, who is often referred to as the “Father of History.” He was born around 484 B.C. at Halicarnassus, a Greek colony on the coast of Asia Minor, and died around 425 B.C. Herodotus visited Egypt to gather information from the scholar-priests for his books. From an Egyptian priest, through an interpreter, Herodotus gathered traditional accounts of the erection of the Great Pyramid. Although evidence goes to show he accurately recorded what he saw and heard, he did believe some things that were not true. In Herodotus’s day, the Pyramid was already very ancient so it is not surprising, therefore, that all sorts of legends and fanciful theories had grown up around the Great Pyramid.
Like Herodotus, Diodorus Silculus, who lived during the first century before Christ, wrote that the Great Pyramid was not used for burial purposes as was the case for the later pyramids. Cheops (the pharaoh believed responsible for the construction of the Great Pyramid) and Chephren (the pharaoh believed responsible for the construction of the Second Pyramid of Giza adjacent to the Great Pyramid) were not buried in these two pyramids. In fact, the sarcophagi in these two Pyramids are both undecorated and uninscribed, thus indicating that no royalty was ever placed in them. There are indications, however, that at some time later, someone else used Chephren’s sarcophagus, for the lid shows that it had been fixed down and then forced off.
No record has been found to indicate the upper chambers of the Great Pyramid were penetrated before 820 A.D., when Caliph Al Mamoun of Baghdad came to Egypt to seek the wealth reportedly hidden within its secret recesses.
Al Mamoun directed Arab workmen to excavate near the base of the middle of the north side of the pyramid. After much laborious work, and on the point of giving up, the workers broke through to the descending passage that started from the original entrance. To their great disappointment, they didn’t find any treasure. Such records of this forced entrance are extant today.
Shortly before the thirteenth century A.D., the Arab physician, philosopher and traveller Abdul Latif, whose work, On the Human Body, became a classic in the Arab world for centuries, wrote that engraved on the white casing stones were strange hieroglyphs.
“The stones were inscribed with ancient characters, now unintelligible. I never met with a person in all of Egypt who understood them. The inscriptions are so numerous that copies of those alone which may be seen upon the surface of the two Pyramids would occupy above six thousand pages.”
Two years after Abdul Latif’s visit a great earthquake hit this area, dislodging many of the white casing stones that covered the surface of the Great Pyramid and made it shine so brightly. These events subsequently led to the stripping of the beautiful casing stones for use in other buildings in the Middle East.
John Greaves (Professor of Astronomy at the University of Oxford, England) was the earliest Western scholar to make a thorough study of the Great Pyramid. He visited Egypt in 1637 in order to explore the pyramids. He afterwards wrote the first book devoted entirely to the Great Pyramid. The publication of his book triggered major interest in the pyramids and in the following years many travellers went to Egypt in search of treasure and hidden secrets.
Science of the Pyramid
Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) is credited with the discovery that the Great Pyramid was constructed on two different units of measurements called cubits. One he called the “profane” and the other he called “sacred.” His original cubit measurements were slightly in error, being based on inaccurate measurements of the base of the pyramid by John Greaves due to insufficient clearance of rubble.
Further research did find that Newton’s “profane” cubit was equal to 20.6284 British inches and is now known as the “Egyptian Royal Cubit.” This Royal Cubit was the unit of measurement employed by the designers of the Great Pyramid. The other and longer “sacred” cubit was found to be equal to 25.0265 British inches and is called today the “Sacred Cubit.” This cubit predominates in the design of the Great Pyramid and through its application the pyramid reveals its scientific features.
The Sacred Cubit is designated in the form of a horseshoe projection, known as the “Boss” on the face of the Granite Leaf in the Ante-Chamber of the Great Pyramid. By application of this unit of measurement it was discovered to be subdivided into 25 equal parts, the subdivisions being known as “Pyramid inches.” (P. inches) One Pyramid inch equals 1.00106 British (and American) inches.
In 1859 John Taylor, author of The Great Pyramid: Why was it built?, proposed that the Pyramid inch was also a Polar Diameter inch. The theory was adopted by Piazzi Smyth in 1864-5. Subsequent scientific calculations confirmed that the Pyramid inch is a 500,000,000 part of the earth’s Polar Diameter.
Surely, at the time the Great Pyramid was built, no man on earth knew the precise dimensions of the spheroid called the Earth. So the question is naturally raised, how was that knowledge incorporated in the measure of the Sacred Cubit?
In geometric form, the Great Pyramid is what is called a true pyramid. Its base is a perfect square. Each of its four sides form perfect equilateral triangles. These triangles slant evenly inward and upward from the base, until they meet at an apex situated perpendicularly over the centre of its base where the two base-diagonals intersect. The last stone (the apex stone) laid in place is also a true pyramid in form. This unique feature of a cornerstone is found in no other form of a building.
It is noteworthy that the Great Pyramid is completely geometric – internally and externally – in its design and conception. A close examination of the Great Pyramid may reveal absolutely nothing unless a knowledge of geometry and mathematics is employed. Valuable insights into the purpose of the Great Pyramid is possible from an independent non-biased viewpoint. Therefore, the secrets of the Great Pyramid, its symbol, measure and angle, can be more appreciated by an engineer than an Egyptologist.
Scientific directed surveys have furnished the actual geometric measurements of the Pyramid. From these measurements calculated data has been obtained which reveal the Great Pyramid to constitute a geometric representation, on a vast scale, of mathematical and astronomical knowledge not to be known, again, for over 4500 years. The remarkable manner in which this knowledge is geometrically expressed, relative to certain simple mathematical formulae, surpasses in every way, any similar undertaking of man.
It is worthy of special note that the entire geometric structure of the Great Pyramid is designed on the basis of Pi – 3.14159 – the mathematical ratio upon which the whole physical universe is designed, (Archimedes 287-212 B.C., the Greek mathematician, never came closer than 3.1428) and the value of “y” – 365.242 – the number of days in the earth’s solar year (the time interval in days between two successive vernal equinoxes in the earth’s journey around the sun).
In mathematics, Pi is the ratio between the circumference of a circle and its diameter (the straight line through its centre). That is to say, the circumference of any size circle is always 3.14159 +, times its diameter. This sign has been adopted because of the fact that the ratio in question has never been ascertained to its finality. It has, however, been calculated to an exceedingly high degree of precision, namely, to over 5,000 decimal places.
The amazing fact that this geometric ratio Pi, which pervades the whole universe, from the vast solar systems to the tiniest atoms, and is incorporated in the Great Pyramid, was first revealed by the angle of the slope of the Pyramid’s sides. This angle results in the Pyramid’s vertical height bearing the same ratio to the perimeter of its base that the radius of a circle bears to the circumference.
In other words, if the height of the Pyramid to its apex is taken as the radius of a circle, the distance around the base of the Pyramid is found to be exactly equal to the circumference of that circle. The required angle of the slope of the Pyramid’s sides to produce this result is consequently known as the pyramidic Pi angle and is 51? 51′ 14.3″. No other pyramid in the world is built at this exact angle.
Nearly all of the dimensions of the interior (King and Queens Chambers, Grand Gallery, etc.), and the Architect’s design of the exterior are expressible in terms of the length of the solar year. Some examples are:
(1) The square base of the Pyramid (four sides) equals 36,524,235 P. inches.
(2) Take the length of the King’s Chamber as the diameter of a circle, then compute, by the best methods of modern science, the area of that circle. Throw that circle into a square shape the length of a side of that square will be 365.2423 P. inches.
(3) Twice the length of the King’s Chamber, (in P. inches) taken in conjunction with the angle of the passages which lead up to it, also indicates the period of the earth’s revolution around the sun. In other words, if the length of the King’s Chamber (412.132 P. inches x 2) is marked off on the floor of the First Ascending Passage, and a right-angled triangle be formed drawing a perpendicular and base-line from the upper and lower extremities respectively of this portion of the floor, the perpendicular will be found to measure exactly the number of days in a solar year, or 365.2423 P. inches.
Also, we should not forget that the King’s Chamber is covered by five layers of large, 70-ton stone beams, each one the equivalent weight of a modern railroad locomotive!
The dimensions of the Ante-Chamber also relate to the solar year. Some examples are:
(1) The length of the Ante-Chamber (116.2603 P. inches) is equal to the diameter of a circle whose circumference is 365.24235 P. inches.
(2) From the centre of the Ante-Chamber to the end wall of the King’s Chamber is 365.242353 P. inches.
(3) From the same plane to the far end of the Coffer in the King’s Chamber is 365.2423 P. inches.
(4) From the front wall of the Ante-Chamber to the back face of the Granite Leaf is 36.524 P. inches.
These few examples should suffice to indicate representational functions of the solar year. The scientific facts monumentalised in the Great Pyramid did not emerge accidentally; a superior knowledge of geometry, mathematics and astronomy would have been essential notwithstanding the means and will-power to express them in structural form.
Ever since the Great Pyramid was first constructed, using a proportionate mathematical system of numbers, all other subsequent pyramids, with a perfect model before them, showed a marked deterioration in standard of construction.
An example of the symmetry of mathematical proportions in the Great Pyramid is found in the measurements of the King’s Chamber and Ante-Chamber. Their dimensions show that:
(1) The width of the King’s Chamber equals half of its length.
(2) The height of the King’s Chamber, equals half of the diagonal of its floor.
(3) If the length of the granite portion of the Ante-Chamber is multiplied by an even 100, and this length is taken to express the diameter of a circle, the arc of that circle will be found to equal the arc of the square base of the Pyramid.
(4) The height of the Ante-Chamber, multiplied by an even 100, equals the base side length, plus the vertical height, of the Pyramid.
(5) The Ante-Chamber length, multiplied by 50, equals the vertical height of the Pyramid.
Through the work of Sir Flinders Petrie, author of The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh (1883), the remarkable discovery was made that the base circuit of the Great Pyramid was constructed in such a manner as to represent the Earth’s three separate lengths of years: The solar tropical year, the sidereal year, and the anomalistic year. These different cycles relate directly to the Earth’s relationship with the sun and the stars.
It also appears that the Great Pyramid was placed as near as possible to latitude 30 degrees. Star observations from this placement would have simplified the pyramid’s geometrical construction.
That the Great Pyramid was built according to extremely accurate astronomical observations is a tribute to the great architects who used this knowledge over 4500 years ago. Clearly, the creators of the Great Pyramid were no ordinary men.
Distances, Weights & Measures
All of the evidence in the Great Pyramid shows that thousands of years ago someone knew a great deal about the Earth:
1) The sun’s distance from the Earth: Modern astronomical distance – 92,900,000 miles. The four lines from the corner sockets of the Great Pyramid to it’s apex slopes inward 10 feet for every 9 feet of elevation. This suggests an equation: Multiplying the height of the Pyramid by 10, nine times, and reduce to miles, gives the astonishing result of 91,856,060 miles.
2) The weight of the Earth: Modern estimate – (53+20 noughts) tons. The pyramid’s weight of approximately 5,300,000 tons happens to be (1 + 15 noughts, or one thousand trillionth) the weight of the Earth. Therefore it can safely be assumed that the architects used this proportion to indicate the weight of the Earth.
3) The mean temperature of the Earth: Modern scientific figure: 68 degrees Fahrenheit. When the air channels were cleaned of sand, the King’s Chamber was found to be at 68 degrees Fahrenheit permanently and unvaryingly.
The Pyramid’s Greatness
The above selection of geometrical and astronomical relationships represent only a portion of the scientific data contained in the Great Pyramid; much more could be told if space permitted. Of course, individual discoveries taken alone could be labelled coincidence. The use of Pi and Copernican astronomy in the Great Pyramid over and over again cannot be simply brushed off as coincidence. The facts are such that important scientific and mathematical information was expressed in the solid and enduring form of the Great Pyramid for reasons unbeknownst to us now.
Modern science does not, and indeed cannot, deal with the mysteries of the Great Pyramid. The basic tenets of modern science are based on materialism. Foolish arguments that the Great Pyramid was a tomb, a grand monument to a ruler, or a water-pump, are the product of the gross and materialistic interpretation of history. And we know from the small amount of evidence examined so far that this colossal monument could not have been embarked upon for mere material gain or selfish glorification.
Our spiritually dead ‘modern world’ is not the crowning point of the evolutionary curve, but the end of a cycle of decay and putrification. The Great Pyramid stands aloof as a symbol of a glorious past and a higher spiritual reality.
Another theme that must be examined is the symbolism of the Great Pyramid – the missing capstone, the inner chambers and their meanings, it’s spiritual significance; symbology is another study in itself.
Manley P. Hall in The Secret Teaching of All Ages concludes his chapter on the pyramids:
“As the passing sands bury civilisation upon civilisation beneath their weight, the Great Pyramid shall remain as the visible covenant between the Eternal Wisdom and the world…”
The Grand Plan at Giza
For many years classical Egyptologists maintained that the Pyramids were merely grandiose tombs to commemorate dead Pharaohs, built by slave labour and laid out in a relatively unstructured manner. However, recent work by Robert Bauval has shed an intriguing new light on the issue.
He realised that the relative sizes, and detailed positioning of the Giza pyramids and the river Nile were a faithful mimicry of the stars forming the ‘belt’ in the constellation of Orion and the Milky Way. In addition, it transpired that the supposed ‘air shafts’ in the pyramids actually pointed directly towards Orion, apparently with the aim of projecting the soul of the deceased king out towards the constellation. A special religious ceremony called the ‘Opening of the Mouth’ was conducted in the Great Pyramid on the body of the dead Pharoah that sought to release the soul and bring about his astral rebirth as an actual star in Orion. Therefore, the Great Pyramid is more rightly called a Temple, rather than a tomb.
These momentous discoveries, fraught with implications for both Egyptologists and ancient astronaut theorists alike, indicates a grand plan at Giza far beyond even the Egyptian dynasties.
Robert Bauval in his book The Orion Mystery (co-authored by Adrian Gilbert) demonstrates that the best fit for the Giza Pyramids/Nile pattern with the Orion’s belt/Milky Way pattern occurred when the sky was pushed back in time (i.e. precessed) to the epoch of 10,500 BC.
Bauval writes in AA&ES magazine (August 1996), “The ancient Egyptians, for example, constantly refer to a remote golden age they called Zep Tepi, ‘The First Time’ of Osiris, which they believed had long predated the Pyramid Age. Osiris was Orion, and the Great Pyramid had a shaft directed to Orion at the meridian…”
Bauval found that by reading through the allegorical ‘language’ of the ancients via symbolic architecture and the related Pyramid Texts, new light was shed on the real purpose of the Giza complex.
It can be shown the ancient Egyptians knew of the astronomical phenomenon of Precession. The two tips of the Earth’s axis wobble slightly over a period of approximately 26,000 years (or one precessional cycle) causing them to perfectly aim at the same points in the celestial sphere as when they began.
Bauval found that the stars of Orion can be said to have a starting point or ‘beginning’ at the nadir of their precessional cycle. Simple calculations show that this occurred in 10,500 BC. Therefore, Bauval proposes, “Could the ancient astronomers of the Pyramid Age have used their very clever ‘silent language’ combined with Precession to freeze the ‘First Time’ of Osiris – somewhat like the gifted architects of gothic cathedral froze in its allegorical stonework the ‘time of Christ’?”
These discoveries alone are re-writing our understanding of the motivations for building the pyramids and the state of technological advance of ancient cultures.
© New Dawn Magazine and the respective author.
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