The symbol of the All Seeing Eye appears regularly among writings by conspiracy theorists. It is alleged the reverse of the Great Seal of the USA is a Masonic symbol and proves that Masonry helped found the United States of America.1 It is also widely believed the All Seeing Eye is the symbol of the Illuminati,2 and where the symbol appears that is evidence of a continuing Illuminatist influence.
While there is much exaggeration and outright falsification based on individual bias, often religiously based, there is also the antithetical position of certain Masons, especially from the Anglophone ‘United Grand Lodge’, who hold there is little significance to the symbol, and that where the symbol appears in association with subversive movements, these are not “genuine Masons.”3 Although this writer has not been able to find any reliable evidence that the All Seeing Eye is in fact the symbol of the Illuminati, the debunkers of all critiques of Masonry are also often in error or are disingenuous. This article examines some examples of the All Seeing Eye as a graphic indicator of conspiracies.4
The Great Seal of the United States: A Masonic Symbol?
Some branches of Masonry, particularly the Grand Orient of France with its tradition of radicalism, atheism and rationalism, acknowledge that many brethren were involved in the American, French and other revolutions.5 The enigmatic symbols on the reverse side of the Great Seal of the USA, more familiarly seen on the US One Dollar Bill, have long caused speculation as to whether this is a sign of Masonic influence. There have recently been attempts at refutation, contending that the combination of the All Seeing Eye and triangle or pyramid motif is not a symbol of Masonry, or at least was not until after the American Revolution and the designing of the Great Seal; and that any subsequent use of the symbol by Masonry was not widespread.
The British Columbia and Yukon Grand Lodge, for example, operates a website with a section devoted to refuting anti-Masonic theories. On the US Great Seal, the Canadian Masons write:
Of the four men involved in designing the USA seal in 1776, only Benjamin Franklin was a freemason, and he contributed nothing of a Masonic nature to the committee’s proposed design for a seal…
Congress declined the first committee’s suggestions as well as those of its 1780 committee. Francis Hopkinson, consultant to the second (1782) committee, used an unfinished pyramid in his design. Charles Thomson, Secretary of Congress, and William Barton, artist and consultant, borrowed from earlier designs and sketched what at length became the United States Seal. None of the final designers of the seal – William Baron, Charles Thomson, Sir John Prestwick – were freemasons.
The single eye was a well-established artistic convention for an ‘omniscient Ubiquitous Deity’ in the medallic art of the Renaissance…
The first ‘official’ use and definition of the all-seeing eye as a Masonic symbol seems to have come in 1797 with The Freemason’s Monitor of Thomas Smith Webb – 14 years after Congress adopted the design for the Seal…
Neither the eye nor the pyramid have ever been uniquely Masonic symbols, although a few Grand Lodge jurisdictions incorporate them into their seals. The combining of the eye of providence overlooking an unfinished pyramid is a uniquely American, not masonic, icon. There are no available records showing the all-seeing eye, with or without a pyramid, associated with freemasonry prior to 1797…6
This Masonic refutation has widely appeared elsewhere in both Masonic and non-Masonic sources including an entry in Wikipedia. There are a number of important points that need questioning.
Early Masonic Use of All Seeing Eye
The website ‘Pietre Stones Review of Freemasonry’ only accepts articles from Master Masons of the United Grand Lodge (UGL) and those recognised by the UGL. It is therefore an authoritative source from that perspective. In a section illustrating ‘Masonic Tracing Boards’7 there are a number which depict the All Seeing Eye as a major symbol. The earliest shown is not from the USA or from the American Colonies, but from Germany going back to 1770, well before the designing of the US Great Seal. Illustrations of early tracing boards incorporating the All Seeing Eye motif include:
- ‘Ancient Tracing Board, Germany, 1770’.8
- ‘Lodge Union No. 129 Kendal 1772’.9
- ‘1796 Union Lodge, Boston’.10
George Washington’s Masonic Apron (left), given to him as a gift from the revolutionist General LaFayette, includes the All Seeing Eye, and dates to 1784.11
Ironically, the Canadian Masonic website includes a section headed ‘Masonic Art’. One of the examples is a painting by the Florentine artist Jacopo Carucci, entitled ‘Supper at Emmaus’ (1525). The Masons involved with this website have isolated the All Seeing Eye and triangle detail from the painting, and present three enlarged images of it.12 Of twelve examples of ‘Masonic art’ given by the Canadian Masons, three feature the All Seeing Eye. One is labelled ‘eye in a triangle’.13 Another is Washington’s Apron featuring the All Seeing Eye.14
In an article entitled ‘The Masonic Landmarks’ by Dr. Athena Stafyla, written for ‘Pietre Stones Review of Freemasonry’, she (or the graphic artist) includes illustrations of both the Great Seal of the USA and a painting (presumably Masonic) of Egyptian ‘masons’ working on an incomplete pyramid.15 The pictures are carried without explanation. The pyramid without its capstone symbolises the work of Masonry, which is to complete the perfection of humanity, as per the Enlightenment and the humanistic and often communistic doctrines which were used as a means of subverting the Traditional social order of Europe and elsewhere from the 18th century. The Masonic doctrine is that the initiated Freemason is working to craft humanity towards Perfection.
All Seeing Eye on Dollar Bill
Reporting on an exhibition of Rosicrucian MSS at the Rosicrucian Museum (San Jose, USA), Gary Singh writing in Metro reports a conversation he had with the curator on the Great Seal and the All Seeing Eye:
We then come back to Roerich’s volume and discuss the Great Seal of the United States and the all-seeing eye. I mention it’s amazing that it took so long for the seal to make it onto the back of the dollar, and that I wonder why George Washington and crew didn’t put it there from the beginning. “Yeah,” said Armstrong. “Considering they were all Masons.”16
Discussing a book by the Rosicrucian author, mystic and painter Nicholas Roerich:
Roerich, a Rosicrucian, played an influential role in the administration of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, as he was the mover and shaker behind FDR putting the Great Seal of the United States and the all-seeing eye on the back of the $1 bill. The eye is a Masonic and Rosicrucian symbol dating back centuries.17
The influence on the Roosevelt Administration to get the All Seeing Eye on the Dollar Bill came via Vice President Henry Wallace, a devotee of Roerich and a 32º Mason. If the All Seeing Eye was not a Masonic symbol, one must wonder why it was considered so important by Roerich, Wallace and President Roosevelt?
Masonic authority Manly P. Hall18 believed the Great Seal represents a specific occult influence on the founding of the USA:
On the reverse of our nation’s Great Seal is an unfinished pyramid to represent human society itself, imperfect and incomplete. Above floats the symbol of the esoteric orders, the radiant triangle with its all-seeing eye… There is only one possible origin for these symbols, and that is the secret societies which came to this country 150 years before the Revolutionary War… There can be no question that the Great Seal was directly inspired by these orders of the human Quest, and that it set forth the purpose for this nation.19
Henry Wallace was imbued with occult doctrine, particularly that inspired by Masonry. He regarded the USA as having a manifest destiny to lead the world into a new world order, and he saw that mission symbolised in the Great Seal. Alluding to the Masonic significance of the unfinished pyramid, the Masonic conception of God as the Great Architect of the Universe, and the motto on the Great Seal referring to a ‘new order of the ages’, Wallace wrote:
It will take a more definite recognition of the Grand Architect of the Universe before the apex stone [capstone of the pyramid] is finally fitted into place and this nation in the full strength of its power is in position to assume leadership among the nations in inaugurating ‘the New Order of the Ages’.20
Wallace’s interpretation of the ‘new order of the ages’ was that of a ‘new world order’, not simply a new era for the USA (hence the reference to the USA leading the ‘nations’ into this international regime). This ‘new world order’ has now become quite familiar after US President George H.W. Bush Snr announced its official inauguration, being ushered in after the first Gulf War war against Iraq.21 His son, President George W. Bush, reiterated the aim fourteen years later when stating, in specific reference to the motto of the Great Seal: “When our Fathers declared a ‘new order of the ages’, they were acting on an ancient hope which is meant to be fulfilled.”22 The reference to an “ancient hope” implies something arcane that would be recognised by the initiated.
All Seeing Eye of Grand Orient Masonry
The All Seeing Eye is an important symbol in Grand Orient and associated forms of Masonry on Continental Europe. United Grand Lodge Masonry can eschew the subversive nature of the Grand Orient and others by the simple expedient of stating they are not “true Masons.” Be that as it may, this oft-cited difference did not prevent important figures such as Benjamin Franklin being initiated into the revolutionist Lodge of the Nine Sisters in Paris, nor Thomas Jefferson lauding the noble virtues of Illuminatist Adam Weishaupt.23
Grand Orient Masonry and its derivatives are of an Illuminatist nature, aiming to overthrow all traditional social orders, to inaugurate a world order ushered in by a faithless, materialistic rationalism, as a prelude to establishing a universal cult as was seen in the aftermath of the French Revolution when rival cults contended on the ruins of the Church and unleashed new forms of un-reason.
The Grand Orient of France (GODF), the mother of Grand Orient throughout the world, does not disguise its rationalist, humanistic and revolutionary pedigree:
But in this period when the new ideas of Liberty, and Equality were to be born, which would lead to the French Revolution and the Republic, France entered the age of enlightenment. From being a sort of ‘Club’ as in England, the Masonic Lodges which very quickly spread in our country became a sounding board for these great new ideas and turned into places where debates about the emancipation of Man and Society took place. The Grand Orient de France which was set up in 1733 and was, until the end of the 19th century, the only Masonic Order in France, is still fighting for these ideals.24
The motto of the GODF is that of the French Revolution, Liberty, Equality, Fraternity. That is to say, the Revolutionaries adopted the motto from the Freemasons. The GODF adds:
Thus Lafayette received a sword from George Washington in honour of the part played by French Freemasons in the American War of Independence. In this way, the preparation of the ideas of Liberty and Equality in the Masonic Lodges contributed to the great reforms of the French Revolution…25
The GODF claims to be continuing the legacy of various revolutionary thinkers and activists including the most extreme anarchists Blanqui and Bakunin whom they identify as Grand Orient Masons:
For the freemasons of the Grand Orient de France, the search for progress has always been the force behind their reflection and their activities, to such an extent that this principle is an integral part of the tradition of this form of Masonry. We are the heirs of men and women who all, in their own way, worked to improve Humankind: Voltaire,26 La Fayette,27 Garibaldi,28 Auguste Blanqui,29 Victor Schoelcher, Emir Abd-El-Kader, Louise Michel, Bakounine,30 Jean Zay, Félix Eboué, Pierre Brossolette and so many others whom we are proud to know have enriched our Lodges with their presence. Therefore, the Grand Orient de France is a vigilant defender of the principles contained in its motto which is also that of the Republic: ‘Liberty, Equality, Fraternity’.31
Therefore, when academics have a clichéd tendency to ridicule ‘conspiracy theories’ on Masonry as simplistic and ignorant, they would do well to consult the Masonic literature, including that of the present day.
As one would expect, the All Seeing Eye makes its looming appearance in the symbology of both the Grand Orient and the French Revolution.
The card of the Cordeliers Club that depicts the All Seeing Eye above the word ‘Surveillance’.32 It is pertinent to ask whether this supposed ‘Eye of Providence’ or ‘Eye of God’ is in reality the eye that sees all under a totalitarian state?
The Symbol of the Grand Orient de France includes an All Seeing Eye above the Masonic Compass & Square, surrounded by the Ouroboros serpent.33
The Temple of the GODF features the All Seeing Eye at centre place.34
1848 GODF medal commemorating the French Republic. This shows an All Seeing Eye within a triangle, around which is the GODF motto: ‘Liberty, Equality, Fraternity’.35
The symbols illustrating the French Revolutionary ‘Declaration on the Rights of Man and the Citizen’ feature the All Seeing Eye radiating above Moses-type tablets etched with the Declaration. Below that symbol is the self-devouring serpent, Ouroboros.36
It is also of interest that the title page of the seminal Encyclopedie,37 compiled by the rationalist philosophers38 under the direction of Denis Diderot, intended as a compendium of scientific knowledge to repudiate the ‘superstition’ of Christianity, is decorated with esoteric symbolism. Leading American atheist Conrad Goeringer, in writing on the contribution of Freemasonry to revolutionary ferment, states that the central figure of the title page is Lucifer, surrounded by the compass and square symbols of Masonry:39
If the bible was the holy book of the Christian enlightenment, then the Encyclopedia was the inspiration of the Enlightenment. Here was a compendium of human knowledge dealing with arts, sciences, mechanics and philosophy which swelled to some 36 volumes by 1780. Begun by the atheist Diderot in 1751, the Encyclopedia bore the imprints of Voltaire, Montesque, Rousseau, Buffon, Turgot and others. Gracing the title page of Diderot’s compendium in the first edition was a drawing of Lucifer, symbol of light and rebellion,40 standing beside the masonic symbols of square and compass.41
Why did the rationalists and humanists of the French Revolution, supposedly eschewing ‘superstition’, decorate their new holy writ with arcane symbolism? The answer is that such creeds are intended not as the end of religious worship, but as a stepping-stone by which traditional faiths are destroyed, to be replaced by a universal humanistic religion where man replaces God, and where the ultimate step is to enthrone a leader as Man-become-God.
The French Revolution was the forerunner of communist revolutions that attempted to abolish Christianity. Amongst the anti-Christian fervour, babies were baptised not to the ‘Father, Son and Holy Ghost’, but to ‘Liberty, Equality, Fraternity’. In 1793 the word Sunday (dimanche) was dropped, the Gregorian calendar was replaced by a French Revolutionary Calendar, and it was prohibited to ring Church bells, display the crucifix, or hold religious processions. Robespierre’s Cult of the Supreme Being was officially inaugurated in 1794,42 opened by hymns to the Supreme Being sang by the Paris Opera choir.43 Yet these subterranean forces did not intend Paris as the capitol of the world, nor even Washington, but Jerusalem, a dream kept alive for centuries in the secret societies.
Jerusalem, World Capitol, Under the Gaze of the All Seeing Eye
In Jerusalem, the United Nations (a truly United Nations) will build a Shrine of the Prophets to serve the federated union of all continents: this will be the seat of the Supreme Court of Mankind, to settle all controversies among the federated continents, as prophesied by Isaiah.
– David Ben Gurion, First Prime Minister of the State of Israel44
Jerusalem holds a central place not only for the three Abrahamic faiths of Christianity, Judaism and Islam, but for Freemasonry, possibly the result of the influence of the Knights Templar whom some researchers regard as the fathers of Masonry,45 and whom the Masons themselves acknowledge as such in their tradition. A major aim of the Freemasons, like the messianic Jews, is the rebuilding of the Temple of Solomon, around which Masonic rituals and allegories are based. Therefore, Masonry can be expected to have a special interest in the creation of the State of Israel.
The importance of Jerusalem to Masonry was stated by Albert Pike, when describing the 30° of Knight Kadoth, when the initiate learns of Masonry’s Templar origins, where it is explained that the Templars seeking to destroy the Papacy aligned themselves with the Patriarch at Constantinople, the Templars’“secret object [being] the re-building of the Temple of Solomon on the model prophesied by Ezekiel.”46 Leon Zeldis, 33° Adjunct Grand Master, Supreme Council of the Scottish Rite for the State of Israel, describes the importance of Jerusalem to Masonry, which happens to corresponds to messianic Judaism:
…King Solomon’s Temple already appears in the Old Charges of Operative Masons used by medieval Lodges and many legendary and ritual features of various Masonic degrees are related to its construction and architecture. For both Christians and Jews, Jerusalem is the focal point of the world, the place where heaven and earth touch each other (Heavenly and Earthly Jerusalem).47
Masonry staked its mark on the borders of Israel. On the Egyptian-Israeli border a marker has been erected by Masonry consisting of a pyramid, the dividers and compass symbol of Masonry and the two columns or pillars, Binah and Chokmah, of the Cabalistic Tree of Life, a feature of Masonic Temples.48
One of the most overt displays of Masonic symbolism is to be found in the Supreme Court building of Jerusalem. The building is replete with Masonic symbolism, and the crowning glory is the All Seeing Eye. Jerry Golden, a researcher resident in Israel, has numerous photographs of the Supreme Court building. In accord with many conspiracy theorists, Golden ultimately attributes this to the Illuminati. While there is no direct evidence of this, the Masonic symbolism is nonetheless apparent. Of additional interest is the involvement of the Rothschild banking dynasty in the construction of the building. Golden writes:
Showing the architectural design of the New Israeli Supreme Court Building designed and paid for by the Rothschilds reflects the presence of Free Masonry… The Supreme Court building sits on a plot of land opposite the Knesset [Parliament] and next to the Foreign Ministry and the Central Bank of Israel.49
The Rothschild involvement in this overtly Masonic construction is perhaps the first reliable evidence of a Rothschild connection with Masonry. Golden writes:
The Engineers who were chosen for this job by the Rothschild’s were the grandson and granddaughter of Ben-Zion Guine from Turkey who worked for Baron Rothschild, Ram Kurmi, born in Jerusalem in 1931, and Ada Karmi-Melanede born in Tel-Aviv in 1936.50
A plaque dedicated to the Rothschilds has been placed on the Supreme Court building. The emblem at the top left of the plaque is a radiating All Seeing Eye. Most evident, however, is the All Seeing Eye on a large pyramid that stands on the top of the Supreme Court building looking over Jerusalem. Golden states of this:
The first thing you will notice is the pyramid with the All Seeing Eye just like the one you will see on the American dollar bill. It sits in a circle to the left.51
These occult and Masonic correspondences suggest the Supreme Court building, in which the Rothschilds took an intimate interest, was constructed for purposes other than merely handing out sentences in the Israeli justice system. Such a building crowned with the pyramid and All Seeing Eye accord with the requirements of a World Court for a New World Order, the aim of the ages’ old traditions of occult societies to establish Jerusalem as the capitol of the universal republic.
1. For a scholarly work on the founding of the USA by Freemasons and the dichotomy that occurred between Masons and Puritans see: Nicholas Hagger, The Secret Founding of America: The Real Story of Freemasons, Puritans & the Battle for the New World (London: Watkins Publishing, 2007).
2. The Order of the Illuminati was a crypto-Masonic secret society founded by Professor Adam Weishaupt in Bavaria, Germany, in 1776, to overthrow the Church and all monarchies, and to establish a communistic universal republic. See: Prof. J Robison (1798) Proofs of a Conspiracy (Massachusetts: Western Islands, 1967).
3. There are branches of Grand Lodge Masonry, or ‘Regular Masonry’, that do however proudly cite the involvement of other forms of Masonry in revolutions as part of a wider Masonic heritage.
4. While allegations of ‘conspiracy’ often appear exaggerated, even less scholarly is the stance of those ‘sceptics’ who insist that any form of conspiratology is delusional or ignorant. Scholarship accepts that the Thuggee was a criminal conspiracy based on religion, or that the Mafia is a criminal conspiracy based around Sicilian families reaching back centuries and spreading out from Sicily to encompass the world. Yet when someone suggests that Freemasonry, Illuminati, Bilderberger, Zionism or the Council on Foreign Relations might be involved in political and economic conspiracies, this is laughed out of academe with arrogant derision.
5. For example, the Portuguese revolution of 1910: A M Goncalves, Breve historical da Maconaria em Portugal, Pel Irmao Mestre Macom, R L Anderson No. 16 Grande Loja Regular de Portugal/GLLP, 14° Grau do Rito Escoces Antigo e Aceite. A Shortened History of Freemasonry in Portugal. English translation by W. Bro. Don Falconer, Pietre-Stones Review of Freemasonry, www.freemasons-freemasonry.com/arnaldoGeng.html. On the March 1917 Russian Revolution see: Richard L Rhoda, ‘Freemasonry in Russia’, www.mastermason.com/hempstead749/RussiaMas.htm
6. Grand Lodge of British Columbia & Yukon, ‘Anti-Masonry Frequently Asked Questions’, Section 2, version 2.9, II SYMBOLS, 3. ‘Is the eye and pyramid a Masonic symbol? No’. freemasonry.bcy.ca/anti-masonry/anti-masonry02.html
7. Masonic Tracing Boards comprise symbols for the instruction of Masons as they are initiated into each degree. They are laid out on the chamber floor and form the basis for lectures on Masonic allegory, history, ritual and doctrine relevant to that degree. Any symbol on a Tracing Board is therefore of importance to Masonry.
8. R. Robinson, ‘Collection of Masonic Tracing Boards’, www.freemasons-freemasonry.com/TBs.html
11. ‘Brother Washington’s Masonic Apron’, Grand Lodge of Free & Accepted Masons of Pennsylvania, www.pagrandlodge.org/mlam/apron/
12. ‘Eye of God’, Masonic Art, Grand Lodge of Yukon & British Columbia, freemasonry.bcy.ca/art/pontormo.html
13. ‘Eye in a triangle,’ Ibid., freemasonry.bcy.ca/art/eye_triangle.html
14. ‘George Washington’s Masonic apron’, Ibid., freemasonry.bcy.ca/art/washington_apron.html
15. Dr. A Stafyla, ‘The Masonic Landmarks’, Pietre-Stones Review of Freemasonry, www.freemasons-freemasonry.com/athena1.html
16. G. Singh, ‘Mystic Pages’, Metro, 24-31 March 2004, www.metroactive.com/papers/metro/03.24.04/rosicrucian-0413.html
18. Hall was a 33º Scottish Rite Mason who founded the Philosophical Research Society in Los Angeles, USA. He was honoured by Scottish Rite Journal which called him ‘The Illustrious Manly P. Hall’ in September 1990, and honoured him as ‘Masonry’s Greatest Philosopher’.
19. Manly P. Hall, The Secret Destiny of America (Los Angeles: The Philosophical Research Society, Inc., 1944), 174.
20. H.A. Wallace, Statesmanship and Religion (New York: Round Table Press, 1934), 78-79.
21. George H.W. Bush, US Congress, 6 March 1991.
22 George W. Bush, Second Inaugural Address, United States Capitol, 20 January 2005.
23. V Stauffer, New England and the Bavarian Illuminati (Columbia University Press, 1918), 312; cited by N Hagger, op. cit., 142.
24. Grand Orient de France, ‘History’, www.godf.org/foreign/uk/histoire_uk.html
25. Ibid. (These entries seem to have been deleted since accessed in 2006).
26. Voltaire and Rousseau were the primary ideological inspirers of the French Revolution. They are depicted on the posters of the Declaration of the Rights of Man & the Citizen, along with Masonic symbolism. G. Hancock and R. Bauval, Talisman: Sacred Cities, Sacred Faith (London: Penguin Books, 2005), 21. Voltaire was escorted during his initiation into the Nine Sisters Lodge in 1778 by de Gebelin and Benjamin Franklin. G. Hancock and R. Bauval, Ibid., 460.
27. Lafayette served with the American revolutionary army, and later drafted France’s Declaration on the Rights of Man & the Citizen.
28. Garibaldi along with Mazzini, were the primary Italian revolutionaries, the latter founding a worldwide movement of which Young Italy was a constituent. Garibaldi became the first Grand Master of Memphis-Misraim Masonry, G. Hancock and R. Bauval, op. cit., 422.
29. Blanqui was a precursor of Karl Marx, and the Communist League derived from Blanqui’s League of Just. D. Conway, A Farewell to Marx (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1987), 146.
30. Mikhail Bakounine was the organiser of the Anarchist movement and the primary rival to Karl Marx for leadership of the First Internationale.
31. ‘Our Values’, Grand Orient de France, www.godf.org/index.php/pages/details/slug/nos-valeurs
32. www.histoire-fr.com/revolution_francaise_monarchie_constitutionnelle_2.htm. The ‘Club of the Cordeliers’ or ‘Society of the Friends of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen’, were ultra-revolutionaries founded in 1790 to guard the ideological purity of the French Revolution. Significantly, the Club was named after the place of its foundation, a former monastery that had been seized from the Church and taken over as state property; a forerunner of communism. The Cordeliers seem to have acted as the Trotskyites of their day.
33. A depiction of the GODF symbol appears at ‘The secession of the Grand Orient de France’, Loja Luz Do Oriente No. 80, luzoriente.blogspot.com/2008_05_01_archive.html
34. A depiction of the GODF Temple appears at: C Hoddap, ‘Women not flocking to the Grand Orient of France’, freemasonsfordummies.blogspot.com/2011/04/women-not-flocking-to-grand-orient-of.html. Hoddap is a 33º Scottish Rite Mason.
35. H. Nguyen, ‘Symbols of Revolution’, halleynguyen294.wordpress.com/category/symbols-of-revolution/
36. Declaration of the Rights of Man & the Citizen, libertyeverywhere.blogspot.com/2010/12/declaration-of-rights-of-man-and.html
37. Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers was published in France between 1751 and 1772.
38. The so-called Encyclopedists.
39. Rt. Hon. Dr. J. Morley, M.P., ‘Denis Diderot (1713-1784)’, Encyclopaedia Britannica, Ninth Edition, 1902, www.1902encyclopedia.com/D/DID/denis-diderot.html
40. 18 and 19th century radicals, including Freemasons such as the anarchist leaders Proudhon and Mikhail Bakunin, regarded Lucifer or Satan in romantic terms as the archetypal rebel. Bakunin, for example, wrote: “Satan is the eternal rebel, the first freethinker and the emancipator of worlds.”M. Bakunin (1883), God & State (New York: Dover Publications, 1970), 112. Karl Marx wrote plays and poems extolling Satanic themes, including The Player and Oulanem. According to Australian Labour history scholar Dr. Bob James, Marx was an initiate of the Loge des Philadelphes, as were the French radical Blanc, and Italian revolutionaries Garibaldi and Mazzini. R. James, Secret Societies and the Labour Movement, Biennial Conference of the Australian Society for the Study of Labour History, Wollongong, 1999; Radical Tradition, www.takver.com/history/secsoc01.htm. Carducci, a leader of Italian Republicanism and of Scottish Rite Masonry, wrote a lengthy poem, Inno a Satana (1863) lauding a revolutionary Satan.
41. C. Goeringer, Conrad. The Enlightenment, Freemasonry, and The Illuminati, Part I – The Enlightenment, www.atheists.org/Atheism/roots/enlightenment/
42. G. Hancock and R. Bauval, op. cit., 15-16.
43. Ibid., 20.
44. David Ben Gurion, Look Magazine, 16 January 1962.
45. M. Baigent and Richard Leigh, The Temple and the Lodge (London: Jonathan Cape, 1989).
46. Albert Pike, Morals and Dogma, 1871, 815-16.
48. J. Golden, ‘Mason’s making a move in Israel, and a closer look at the Road Map’, Golden Report, 23 February 2005, ‘Masonic Monument in Eilat’, Cassiopaea Forum, 9 August 2010, cassiopaea.org/forum/index.php?topic=19165.0
49. J. Golden, ‘The Roots of Evil in Jerusalem’, 21 February 2011, www.thegoldenreport.com/special-reports/5-the-roots-of-evil-in-jerusalem
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